"24 sets of condoms tested and all failed" and almost 71% failed "In respect of one or more of the physical requirements of the specification, notably freedom from pinholes." SABS report April 89.
"Spillage from condoms occurs as much as 65% to 75% of the time." Bjorklund and Gordon. Univ of Manitoba. Nov. 1990.
"The rubber comprising latex condom has intrinsic voids about 5 microns in size." The HIV virus is 0.1 micron. Roland, Rubber World. June 1993. Roland and Sobieski, Rubber Chemistry and Technology. Vol. 62, 1989.
Condoms reduce the risk of HIV infection by about 70% if they are used "consistently and correctly" IPPF (International Planned Parenthood Federation) Medical Bulletin Feb. 1997.
"It is not established whether the condom is as effective at preventing heterosexual transmission of HIV as it is for preventing conception." "The level of protection approximates 87%, with a range depending upon the incidence (of HIV) among condom nonusers. Thus the condom's efficacy at reducing heterosexual transmission may be comparable to or slightly lower than its effectiveness at preventing pregnancy." Family Planning Perspectives, 1999.
The failure rate for condoms in preventing pregnancy is 10%. K. Niswander. Manual of Obstetrics 1980.
The ISO standard for condoms allows 2 per 350 to be defective (about six defects per thousand.) (Tough luck if you happen to be one of those six)
"Increased condom use will increase the number of [HIV/AIDS] transmissions that result from condom failure" and "a vigorous condom promotion policy could increase rather than decrease unprotected sexual exposure if it has the unintended effect of encouraging a greater overall level of sexual activity." "Condoms and seat belts: the parallels and the lessons" The Lancet, 29 Jan 2000
In one test, 33% of latex condoms leaked HIV sized particles. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. vol.19. 1992
Ontario Ministry of Health campaign to promote condoms by means of televised AIDS messages made respondents more inclined to use condoms but less inclined to avoid casual sexual partners. Wilde, Target Risk, PDE Publications, 1994.
IPPF indicates that the risk of contracting AIDS during so-called "protected sex" approaches 100 percent as the number of episodes of sexual intercourse increases. Cates Medical Bulletin, IPPF 1997.
The only sure ways to avoid sexual transmission of diseases (including AIDS, chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts, gonorrhoea, hepatitis B, and syphilis) are not to have sex at all or to limit sex to one uninfected partner who is also monogamous. Food and Drug Administrationc (USA) Consumer Magazine Sep 1990.
A Summary of Major Studies on Condom Breakage and Slippage Rates
Study # 1: Nevada[A]
Study # 2: United States[B]
Study # 3: Sydney, Australia[C]
Study # 4: United States[D]
Study # 5: Atlanta, Georgia[E]
Study # 6: Atlanta, Georgia[F]
Study # 7: California[G]
Study # 8: North Carolina[H]
Study # 9: North Carolina[I]
Study #10: North Carolina[J]
Study #11: California[K]
Study #12: North Carolina[L]
Study #13: Denmark[M]
Study #14: New Zealand[N]
Study #15: North Carolina[O]
Totals and Averages
Summary of Studies
Average breakage rate of all condoms: 1,168/25,184 = 4.64%
Average slippage rate of all condoms: 640/18,853 = 3.40%
Total failure rate of all condoms: 8.04%
Reference: All of these studies are listed in Robert A. Hatcher, et. al. Contraceptive Technology (17th Revised Edition) [New York: Ardent Media, Inc., 1998]. Table 16-3, "Prospective Studies of Condom Breakage and Slippage," pages 330 to 332. The Table refers to the following studies, as listed above. All studies or parts of studies refer to vaginal intercourse only.
Study of Nevada Brothel Prostitutes. A.E. Albert, D.L. Warner, R.A Hatcher, J. Trussell, and C. Bennett. "Condom Use Among Female Commercial Sex Workers in Nevada's Legal Brothels." American Journal of Public Health, 1995;85:1,514-1,520.
Study of Monogamous American Couples. M.J. Rosenberg and M.S Waugh. "Latex Condom Breakage and Slippage in a Controlled Clinical Trial." Contraception, 1997;56:17.21 (events of breakage and slippage were unambiguously not double counted).
Study of Sydney Female Prostitutes. J. Richters, B. Donovan, J. Gerofi and L. Watson. "Low Condom Breakage Rate in Commercial Sex" [letter]. Lancet 1988;2:1,487-1,488. Correction by John Gerofi in personal communication to Philip Kestelman, July 1989.
U.S. Clinical Research Participants. M.A. Leeper and M. Conrardy. "Preliminary Evaluation of REALITY, a Condom for Women to Wear." Advances in Contraception 1989;5:229-235.
Study of Atlanta Family Planning Recruits. J. Trussel, D.L. Warner and R.A. Hatcher. "Comdom Performance During Vaginal Intercourse: Comparison of Trojan-Enz and Tactylon Condoms." Contraception 1992;45:11-19.
Study of Atlanta Family Planning Recruits. J. Trussel, D.L. Warner and R.A. Hatcher. "Condom Slippage and Breakage Rates." Family Planning Perspectives 1992;24:20-23 (events of breakage and slippage were unambiguously not double counted; slippage rate recalculated from original article and reflects condoms that fell off or slipped down during intercourse or withdrawal).
Study of Southern California Monogamous Couples. A. Nelson, G.S. Bernstein, R. Frezieres, T. Walsh, V. Clark and A. Coulson. "A Study of the Efficacy, Acceptability and Safety of a Non-Latex (Polyurethane) Male Condom; Revised Final Report (N01-HD-1-3109). Bethesda, Maryland: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, September 15, 1997 (events of breakage and slippage were unambiguously not double counted).
Study of North Carolina Monogamous Couples (events of breakage and slippage were unambiguously not double counted; among new condoms used with either no additional lubricant or water-based lubricant, rates recalculated from the original article) .
Study of North Carolina Monogamous Couples (breakage rates ranged from 3.5% for a new lot to 18.6% for an 81-month old lot).
Study of North Carolina Monogamous Couples (events of breakage and slippage were unambiguously not double counted).
Study of Southern California Monogamous Couples. A. Nelson, R. Frezieres, T. Walsh, V. Clark and A. Coulson. "A Controlled Randomized Evaluation of a Commercially Available Polyurethane and Latex Condom (Avanti Versus Ramses Sensitol): Final Report (N01- HD-1-3109). Bethesda, Maryland: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, November 6, 1996 (events of breakage and slippage were unambiguously not double counted).
Study of North Carolina Couples Recruited by Mail.
Study of Denmark Female Prostitutes and Male and Female Hospital Staff.
Study of New Zealand Male and Female Family Planning Clinic Clients (events of breakage and slippage were unambiguously not double counted).
Study of North Carolina Local Recruits.