Contraception vs. NFP

Every married couple has the responsibility to prayerfully practice what the Catholic Church calls “responsible parenthood” as it pertains to the number and spacing of children. Spouses are to exercise this responsibility with generosity in receiving the gift of life, and with prudence, while avoiding selfishness and carelessness. Although children are the supreme gift of marriage, Catholic couples are not obliged to have as many children as humanly possible. While always remaining open to the possibility of a new life, couples may, when a serious reason is present, choose to postpone pregnancy.

How can a married couple practice responsible parenthood?

While our culture sees contraception as the best way to “plan” a family, the Catholic Church teaches that choosing to make oneself infertile through contraception is irresponsible and an “intrinsic evil.” Married couples are called to embrace and to be open to children, who are a living sign of their love.

Instead of using contraception, couples who have a serious reason to postpone pregnancy may use a method based on fertility awareness and then choose to abstain from intercourse when it is known that pregnancy is likely. Done with the right intention, fertility awareness—or natural family planning—is fully supported by the Church, and it can be an effective and beautiful way for a married couple to embrace the gift of marriage responsibly.



What Is Natural Family Planning?

Natural family planning (NFP) is an umbrella term for several different types of methods in which a woman monitors and tracks the signs of fertility in her body. These can include her basal body temperature, the look and feel of her cervical mucus, the placement and feel of her cervix, hormone levels, or any combination of these “markers.”

When using the Sympto-Thermal Method, a woman tracks her temperature, cervical changes, and her cervical mucus. If using the Creighton Model FertilityCare™ System, the woman tracks only the look and feel of her cervical mucus. When using the Marquette Method, the woman tracks her hormone levels with a Clearblue Fertility Monitor. She has the option of also tracking the other markers as well.

These methods all have several advantages—morally, psychologically, and physically—over standard methods of birth control.

happy couple outdoors piggyback


How Does NFP Differ from Contraception?

You might be wondering: What’s the difference between the “natural” method and medical or barrier methods? Isn’t the goal the same? To answer these fair questions, we can compare the use of contraception and NFP on such key issues as health, love, and morality.


#1. NFP Is Much Better for Women’s Health

Contraception: Medical journals have published countless studies indicating unwanted side effects of contraception. For example:

  • Breast cancer risks are elevated for oral contraceptive users: The World Health Organization identifies synthetic estrogen as a class 1 carcinogen (the same category as cigarettes and asbestos).
  • Stroke risk is higher for users of oral contraception, with studies showing a 50% to 300% higher rates. The Physician’s Desk Reference states it “is well established” that blood clots are a significant risk for women who use oral contraception, and the FDA warned in 2012 that the newest generation of oral contraceptives carries a 2-3 times greater risk of blood clots than prior versions.
  • Oral contraceptive users have a greater risk of heart attack than non-users, and their arteries develop plaque at a faster rate.
  • On top of all of this, contraception is used to debilitate a healthy and functioning organ system. By design, it works against the woman’s body. (See HLI’s brochure “Contraception Questions: Is Contraception Really Good for Women?”)

Knowing all of this, what man would want his wife to take these risks, especially when there is a healthier method available?

abortion pill

NFP: In a culture increasingly concerned with “going green” and “all-natural” products, it is ironic that we continue to encourage women to use harmful synthetic steroids when an all-natural, life-affirming, and healthy alternative is available. NFP not only allows women to avoid consumption of often dangerous drugs, it is often used to help identify health problems that only come to light when paying close attention to fertility.

For example, the Creighton Model of fertility awareness has a long and growing track record of identifying signs of underlying and previously untreated conditions, and women’s lives are being changed by their diagnosis and treatment.

Husbands should make sure that their wives maintain their health. Practicing NFP is one way of doing this.


#2. NFP Allows for True Love

Contraception: Marriage and sexuality are gifts from God by which man and woman unite in love and create new human beings. Contraception deliberately removes these intrinsic meanings (union and procreation) from sex and does harm to marriage itself and to one’s spouse. As Pope Paul VI wrote in Humanae Vitae, “To use this divine gift while depriving it, even if only partially, of its meaning and purpose, is equally repugnant to the nature of man and of woman, and is consequently in opposition to the plan of God and His holy will” (HV 13).

broken wedding picture with rose

Using contraception involves the rejection of God’s design and the fertility of one’s spouse. It does not allow for true intimacy because in using contraception, spouses “protect” themselves from one another and the fruit of marital love—a child. Contraception undermines self-gift to one’s spouse, and when a child is conceived, often leads to the couple seeing the child as an “accident” that can be “fixed” with abortion.

NFP: NFP expresses a profound openness to God’s will for a couple and embraces both the unitive and procreative meanings of marital intimacy. It respects God’s laws and His careful design and also recognizes that we are not “the master of the sources of life but rather the minister of the design established by the Creator.”

NFP allows for love and gift of self to one’s spouse and thus enriches and deepens the love of the spouses. Sexual intercourse remains a true act of love and never involves acting against a potential child. The couple is never opposed to the fruit of their love, and thus they are capable of giving and receiving the complete gift of self that they desire.


#3. NFP Leads to Better Relationships

Contraception: When Pope Paul VI wrote his encyclical Humanae Vitae, he made four predictions of what would follow widespread acceptance of contraception:

  1. An increase in infidelity
  2. A general lowering of morality
  3. A loss of respect for and objectification of women
  4. Governments forcing their populations to use contraception if they felt its use furthered the “good of the state” (HV 17).

Sadly, all of these predictions have come true, as the “contraceptive mentality” that follows its widespread acceptance has led to a culture that demeans women, often forces contraception on poor citizens, and increases societal acceptance of and dependence on abortion. As St. John Paul II emphasized, contraception and abortion are fruits of the same tree and are hallmarks of a Culture of Death.

NFP: The vast majority of NFP users find that it fosters a union between spouses that is fully human, open to God’s will, and allows for total gift of self to one another. It involves sacrifice, and so fosters a greater appreciation for one’s spouse and the gift of marital love. Among the positive benefits of NFP is that occasional sacrifice in the bedroom helps prevent selfishness from entering the marriage, and it fosters a more peaceful relationship between spouses who become more apt to resolve or avoid other problems.


Divorce Rates of NFP Users (top) and Contraception Users (bottom)

divorce rates of nfp users compared to contraception users

Contraception use has been associated with a divorce rate twice as high as the divorce rate among NFP users (data from Clarifying Catholicism)


Further, NFP encourages couples to express affection and love for one another in ways that are not sexual and discourages couples from seeing one another as objects of pleasure (see Humanae Vitae 21). Perhaps it is no surprise that studies indicate that users of NFP report greater intimacy, a greater satisfaction with their sex lives, and significantly lower divorce rates than contraception users.


#4. NFP Is at Least as Effective as Contraception

Studies have shown that, when done correctly, NFP is as good as or better than hormonal contraceptives. For instance, according to the Marquette site, this method is 98 to 99% effective in postponing pregnancy.

A Creighton fact sheet on fertility states that this model “has a perfect use rate of 98.7-99.5%, and a typical use rate of 83-97%, as good as hormonal contraceptives (IUDs, the pill, etc.) and better than barriers (condoms, etc.).”

And the Sympto-Thermal Method is over 99% effective in postponing pregnancy.

While hormonal implants such as Nexplanon and IUDs are also over 99% effective, they come with a host of potential side effects, including more painful and heavy periods, the possibility of the implant or IUD moving into a different part of the body, and other dangerous physical and psychological side effects.

However, a woman need not worry about any of these side effects with NFP, as all of these NFP methods are safe and easy to use. Further, all require a woman to be in tune with her body, and they require good communication skills between the husband and wife. As we have noted, couples say that this increased communication strengthens their marriages.


#5. One More Comparison…

While much more could be said about the differences between NFP and birth control, perhaps another simple comparison will illustrate the problem with separating the goods that follow from our choices with regard to basic human needs.

Most people know intuitively that a healthy diet is better for a person than bulimia—the disorder in which one intentionally regurgitates food in order to avoid calories. The healthy eater uses her freedom and self-control to choose wisely what she eats, while the one suffering with bulimia acts from a corrupt notion of freedom that seeks to escape the consequences of her choices. She separates the good of the taste of food from its nutritional aspect.

While most of us can see why this is obviously unhealthy with regard to food, many of us have lost that intuitive understanding of why contraception is so unhealthy, even though both contraception and bulimia are unhealthy for the same basic reason. Both are very unhealthy not only physically, but because they both represent an abuse of freedom based on the desire to have the good “taste” without the consequences.

forms of contraception

Ultimately, it is clear why rejecting the natural ends of such basic human goods as eating and sexuality yields very unhealthy results, both physically and spiritually. And using the virtue of temperance—of not overdoing a good thing—applies to every way in which we satisfy our basic human needs.


The Takeaways

If marriage is your vocation, then you are called to responsible parenthood. Sometimes this may involve using NFP to postpone having a child or to achieve pregnancy. The vast majority of couples who use NFP instead of birth control find that it strengthens marriage because it respects freedom, and couples find themselves richly rewarded for their commitment both to God’s law and to one another.

This resource is available as an eight-page booklet that can be ordered from our store. Order copies through HLI’s online store here.


Further reading on NFP

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HLI staff writers bring you stories from the mission field and the latest information on life and family issues. All HLI articles are true to Catholic teaching.


  1. Edobor on October 22, 2021 at 8:49 AM

    How can one study Creighton method

    • HLI Staff on October 28, 2021 at 12:20 PM

      Edobor, there is much information online about the Creighton method and classes that might be local to you . If you need any assistance finding teaching near you, please email our office ( with your location, and we will try to help.

  2. Kevin Mark on October 4, 2017 at 11:10 PM

    Dear Human Life International,

    Upon reading your article entitled, “Contraception vs. NFP – HLI Educational Series,” I am dismayed at the worldly message being touted: “Every married couple has the responsibility to prayerfully practice what the Catholic Church calls “responsible parenthood,” as it pertains to the number and spacing of children.” Again, you write, “If marriage is your vocation, then you are called to responsible parenthood.” Unfortunately, you are leading Catholics astray by not giving them the whole truth: The default in a marriage is to have children as God grants them, naturally, not NFP. It is highly ironic that NFP advocates tout how effective it is at avoiding children, while bragging about how open to life they are. This is a contradiction. Either you are open to life or you are taking steps to actively avoid life – these are polar opposites. It is a sad reality that very, very few Catholic marriages bear a very large number of children anymore (eg. 8+) and NFP can be blamed for this. In many if not most cases, NFP is used with a contraceptive mentality; in general, the users of NFP simply do not trust God in the planning of their family – they have embraced the planned parenthood mentality! Where, in the history of the Church, prior to the 1900’s can you find any evidence of faithful Catholics deciding to stop trusting God to plan their family size and instead to take family planning into their own hands? What if Catholics were taught to bear children according to the very design of God, and were taught to follow what the Bible teaches: “Defraud not one another, except, perhaps, by consent, for a time, that you may give yourselves to prayer; and return together again, lest Satan tempt you for your incontinency.” Perhaps, they would then see that NFP goes directly against this mandate, since the users are in fact defrauding one another for reasons other than prayer. They are defrauding one another, but even worse are defrauding God of the children he wants from holy matrimony! NFP may have a place, when there is truly a serious reason for using it – a grievous reason. But I think if we are honest, we can admit that the vast majority of NFP users are doing it for the same reason people use contraception: they simply want to avoid the burden of (more) children, at least for now. Does God really approve of this motive? In conclusion, the Catholic Church and in fact the whole world would be utterly transformed for the glory of God and His kingdom if Catholics were taught to bear children just like Catholics of old did (like St. Catherine of Sienna’s mother, thank God she didn’t stop at child number twenty-four). The devil wants to limit the size of Catholic families by any means possible, including NFP. Trust in the Lord Jesus in all things, including your family size, and see what He will do. You will never regret having another child. But you will regret NFPing one away.

    • Ana on January 17, 2020 at 2:45 PM

      NFP respects each sexual act with openness to life. The couple consider the fertility time of the woman as sacred ground and if they are not ready to have a child, they abstain from relations those fertile days of the woman. It requires love and self-sacrifice to do this. By the way these qualities are required for a long-lasting marriage and the fact is that couples who use NFP have a very small percentage of divorce 2% in comparison to the couples who use contraception. NFP is always open to life.

    • Regina on July 4, 2021 at 4:14 PM

      I might ask readers to consider abstaining from the marital act akin to fasting from food. Is sex good and necessary for the continuation of life? Yes. Is food good and necessary for the continuation of life? Again, yes. But we, as Catholics believe in the practice of abstinence from sex as well as fasting from food – to help in our right relationship with God and his creation. Abstaining from sex in marriage does not mean a couple has chosen a contraceptive mentality. In fact, one could argue that every choice concerning sexual union is a sacrifice. If they abstain, they are making a sacrifice of the pleasure of the act, and turning to other ways of expressing their love to one another. If they choose to engage, they make the sacrifice of laying down their lives to the future child(ren) that they could be creating in that instance. On another note, many couples struggling with infertility and miscarriage, who are desperately trying to conceive, turn to NFP (especially the Creighton Method and NaPro technology) to address the underlying causes of their fertility issues. They are finding answers, conceiving and carrying to term, without turning to IVF. Please be aware of ALL the aspects of NFP, not just key in on one facet – that of avoiding pregnancy.

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